SBCT関係論文翻訳
1999年10月AUSAの昼食会にて時の米陸軍参謀長エリック=シンセキ大将は演説を行った。陸軍の変革・再編・革新の道程標となる出来事であった。
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フォートアーウィン拡張の元記事
出典 San Bernardino Sun com
URL http://www.sbsun.com/news/ci_3695753
原題 Counterinsurgency training at Fort Irwin
Sculpting new war discipline
Army prepares for urban role for Iraq tours
日時 2006年4月11日
筆者 Chuck Mueller, Staff Writer
他掲載媒体 不明
発信地 フォートアーウィン
内容
テロとの戦いに備え拍車をかけて、陸軍は大規模な戦車戦から車爆弾や自爆ベストで武装した内乱者との都市戦闘訓練へと移っている。

#以下全訳最後まで
”イラクでの戦争が我々の展望を変えた”とフォートアーウィンにある陸軍のNational Training Center司令のRobert Cone准将(Brig. Gen.)は話す。”その戦争から我々皆は教訓を学んでいる”

劇的に変化している世界に対応して戦力と戦略を再編し、陸軍は宗派と民族の混沌の温床での戦闘に部隊を備えさせつつある。

この変化は陸軍にとって第二次世界大戦以来最大のものであり、戦力により大なる機動力と柔軟性を与える。

Cone准将はフォートアーウィンを対内乱戦闘の複雑さを訓練する場と考えている。

”高いストレスを与えて今日の戦士らに卒業レベルの訓練を施すところだ”と同准将。

”イラクでのあらゆる問題と重要事項を再現できない事は分かっている”と戦争に引き裂かれている同国の文化の多様性、緊張と暴力的な内乱が蔓延る都市環境をあげつつ准将は語る。”この戦争の鍵は人々を理解し、人心を勝ち取り、交流して信頼を得ることである”

Cone准将は、ウェストポイント卒で戦略研究と社会学でも修士号を持ち、戦術家にして世界の文化や事象に鋭い理解をもった開明的な人である。

”ここでの厳しく現実味ある訓練により、我々がやっていることが戦闘部隊の生命を救えていると心から信じている”と2年まえにNTC(the National Training Center)の長となったCone准将(48歳)は語る。

”新世紀の技術と軍事戦略を組み合わせることで、世界で最も訓練を積んだ兵士をイラクに送っている”

フォートアーウィンでは、陸軍は兵をイラクでの任務に備えさせるため様々な想定を設け、演技者が演じる役割は2000以上である、とCone准将。この訓練のため国防総省では一年あたり2億3千万ドルの予算を組んでいる。

想定を演じるのは12の模擬村落にいる1600名の演技者で、うち250名はイラク系アメリカ人。昼夜、訓練中の兵は伏撃、車爆弾、誘拐、暴動、蜂起など全てをハリウッドのコーチをうけた演技者が迫真で再現するありのままの現実に直面する。

同時に兵らは、住民の安全と治安を確保するため、村落や宗教指導者との話し合いという交渉ごとの基礎を学ぶ。


"The Iraqis are tremendously dedicated, especially in soldiers' negotiations with suspected terrorists," Cone said.

Investing in training

µ

The isolation faced by soldiers in the desolate, treeless outback of Fort Irwin invokes the sense of military operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

"For me, it's like Afghanistan," said Sgt. Matthew Boone, an observer with the 10th Mountain Division, a New York unit training at Fort Irwin this month. "It's a good place to train soldiers who haven't been deployed (to the Middle East)."

To augment the virtual reality of an overseas mission, the Army will spend $57 million over the next few years to build a simulated Iraqi village with 300 buildings. It will expand one of the fort's existing insurgent towns, Medina Jabal, at least sixfold.

"It will be a sound investment to create an urban setting for potential combat with enemy forces," Cone explained.

With tilt-up concrete buildings, streets filled with vehicles and crowds of people, the city will provide combat training unlike any at existing Army installations - an opportunity to recreate the chaos experienced two years ago at Fallujah, the Army says.

In such a vast urban setting, underlaid by tunnels, the Army will be able to send companies and platoons on missions to uproot snipers and car bombers and find hidden factories, where improvised explosive devices are made.

"It's imperative that our soldiers get this kind of training," the general said. "It is the heart of our mission at the National Training Center - a mission we have honed the past two years."

Cone said the military is calling for bids from contractors to construct the city, which will contain a palace complex, city hall and dwellings for Iraq-American role-players. The Pentagon has allocated $12 million this year for initial construction.

Simulating a war zone

µ

Maj. John Clearwater, the fort's public-affairs officer, said the Army can readily adjust its scenarios at the National Training Center to match combat activity in Iraq.

"We're tied into an Internet system with our forces in Iraq that allows us to make any adjustment we feel is vital to our training," he said.

The 50,000 troops on annual maneuvers at Fort Irwin can measure their training with what is happening in the Iraqi war zone.

"We share what we learn with every unit that comes here," Cone said.

Much of the action in the scenarios occurs at night, such as raids into the villages in search of bomb-making factories.

In a recent simulated attack with nonlethal electronic lasers, a team of "insurgents" tied three 150 mm artillery rounds together,



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hiding the bomb inside a truck.
As the truck approached the front gate at a forward infantry base, the truck driver opened fire with a machine gun employing a laser, Clearwater said.

"Under the scenario, an explosive charge was set off, creating a loud bang and a lot of smoke," he said.

In February, troops from the Army's 2nd Infantry Division at Fort Lewis, Wash., attacked a simulated insurgent village called Junction City.

"It was a real slugfest to clear them out," Clearwater said.

At the same time, ongoing training in the detection of improvised explosive devices, or IEDs, is reinforced through Fort Irwin's IED Center of Excellence.

"The Defense Department established the center here last year to find ways to counter the insidious weapon," Clearwater said. "It is one of the leading killers of American forces in Iraq."

Building better soldiers

Gen. Cone said troop commanders at Fort Irwin teach soldiers in training "a sense of basics" to deal with insurgents.

"Our job is to make soldiers better, and we assess each unit daily to ensure that we're doing that," he said.

Tracking bomb makers, for example, requires military-intelligence teams to follow a trail from the manufacturers of IEDs to the mules that haul explosives.

"For every bomb, there's a causal trail, with 95 percent of our intelligence coming from the bottom upward," the general said. "Our intelligence officers have visited the Los Angeles Police Department to learn how they fight crime and deal with gangs."

At the training center, clues are inserted into the battlefield scenarios to help soldiers identify high-priority intelligence.

"It's amazing to watch a unit take corrective action (at trail's end)," the general said.

Expanding the fort

Fort Irwin, 37 miles northeast of Barstow, is home to 11,000 soldiers and their families. The military post, activated in 1980 as the National Training Center, has seen significant changes in those 26 years. But more are on the drawing boards, Cone said.

After 15 years, plans to expand the training center by 111,000 acres is nearing completion.

"We hope to move troops onto the land by June or July," the general said.

The proposal to enlarge the post drew fire from environmentalists, off-road vehicle buffs and rock climbers who said the federal government already has laid claim to too much land in the Mojave Desert.

In the center of the expansion battle was the state's reptile, the endangered desert tortoise. After years of debate, the Army and its opponents reached a compromise that allows Fort Irwin to move onto land to the east and west.

A tortoise preserve will be created along the south border, and the Army will construct 40 miles of fences along Fort Irwin Road to keep the slow-moving creatures off the highway.

Meanwhile, the Army is expanding its complex of homes for military families along the fort's western perimeter.

Working with a private contractor, the military recently opened 241 new houses on the post and has plans to construct 900 more, the general said.

And for families wanting more recreation than is offered at the post theater and bowling alley, Fort Irwin is moving ahead with plans to redevelop its "mid-town" area.

"We're planning a new community center, with 10 retail stores and other amenities," Cone said.

That is expected to be a boon to family shoppers who now must travel to Barstow or 70 miles to Victorville.

Meanwhile, the Defense Department will spend $22 million to add five passing lanes on congested Fort Irwin Road, which links the post with Barstow. Fifty-one white crosses mark points along the two-lane road where travelers have died since 1980.

Officials say 5,123 vehicles travel the road daily.

"People who visited Fort Irwin two decades ago won't recognize it now," Cone said. "For us, the only constant is the need for constant change."
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